Day by Day the mobile users want more Faster and Reliable Data Speed in order to explore things on the internet in a better and effective way. The Next Generation Wireless Systems, 5G will be able to provide massive possibilities for the users. Using 5G, One will be able to download a movie in just a second. Besides this, 5G will also be useful for the development of Internet of Things, Virtual Reality, Autonomous Vehicles, etc.
The Telecom Companies are hoping that the Next Generation Mobile Networks, 5G will arrive in the commercial market in 2020. Also, every day the number of subscribers are increasing, so the demand for faster and reliable data is increasing. In order to achieve this, wireless engineers are working together to bring data with less than 1 ms and bring top download speed of up to 20GBs. Until now, it’s not clear which technologies will be used in 5G. As per now, it is believed that Millimeter waves, Small cells, Massive Mimo, Beamforming and Full Duplex. Here in this article, you will learn in brief about Awesome Technologies used to build 5G.
One of the major problem faced by Wireless Network today is, users are increasing which increases demand for higher data, but radio frequency used by users is same. This causes slower bandwidth and dropped connections. To solve this, Providers are focusing on transmitting signals on new spectrum. Broadcasting frequencies on Millimeter Waves ranging from 30 GHz to 300GHz, compared to 6GHz bands used by radio frequencies in current smartphones.
Till now, Millimeter Waves were used for Satellite and Radar systems, but now they will be used in the development of 5G, which is a completely new approach. One major drawback of Millimeter Waves is, they can’t travel through obstacles and get absorbed by trees and rain. To avoid this, new technology Small Cells is introduced.
Small Cells are movable small base stations that consume less power and can be placed at every 250 meters in all the cities. To prevent dropping of signals, operators need to install a large number of cells to send and receive data. Currently, telecom operators use a large number of base stations, So in 5G, it will require more complex infrastructure. In Millimeter Waves, antennas and base stations would be much smaller.
Using these Small Cells, if one user is unable to get a signal by one station, the user will be diverted to another station. One major problem lies in Small Cells is, it is difficult to set up stations in rural areas. In order to overcome issues in above technologies, Massive Mimo can be used.
Currently, the 4G base station uses 12 ports for antennas, out of which 8 ports are used for transmitters and 4 are used for receivers to handle traffic signals. Using 5G, Cells supports 100 of ports which can be used to send and receive data simultaneously. By doing this, the capacity of the network increases by 22%. It’s called MIMO. MIMO stands for Multiple Input Multiple Output. Using MIMO, Wireless Systems can use two or more Transmitters and Receivers to exchange data at the same time. Apart from this, using MIMO a dozen of antennas can be featured on a single array.
MIMO will be beneficial for 5G, but as we install more antennas and base stations, cellular traffic will increase which will lead to the crossing of signals. In order to overcome this, a new technology called Beamforming is introduced.
Beamforming is a special signal processing technique for the base stations which finds the best data delivery route for a particular user and also it decreases the intrusion for the nearby users in the process. Beamforming helps Massive MIMO arrays to make the best use of spectrum while MIMO faces a major challenge to decrease the intrusion to transmit data from many antennas at once.
Beamforming also helps Millimeter Waves to transmit data to a particular user in a concentrated beam in a particular direction, instead to transmitting in many directions. Due to this, the strength of signal increases and Intrusion decreases. Apart from uplifting the data transfer speed and increasing spectrum efficiency, engineers are also focusing to accomplish high throughput and low latency required in 5G using the technology Full Duplex, which improves the way the antenna transfers data.
In the current scenario, the base stations and smartphones depend on transceivers which change the route for exchanging data if it’s on the same frequency or tries to transmit data on a different frequency if one wants to transmit at the same time. While in 5G, using transceivers one will be able to exchange data on the same frequency at the same time. It is called Full Duplex. Due to this, time decreases and more information can be changed.
Currently, Full Duplex is used in the Military which uses a heavy equipment. In order to implement Full Duplex in smartphones, one need to design a small circuit. It is difficult because of the tendency of radio waves to travel in both forward and backward direction on the same frequency, which is known as reciprocity. But now, researchers have built silicon transistors which behave as speed switches to stop backward roll of waves, allowing them to exchange signals on the same frequency at once.
A major problem lies with the Full Duplex is, it creates more signal intrusion which is due to pesky echo. This happens because when the transmitter sends a signal, it is very close to the antenna and it is more powerful than any other signal. To avoid this, the antenna has to exchange data at the same time, which is possible with a special technique called echo canceling technique.
With the above 5 technologies and many other technologies, engineers are trying to build a wireless network that will be helpful in various sectors. Also, they are promising to provide high speed and more reliable data to users. It is expected that 5G service will arrive in the market after 5 years.